Discussion of Bladder malacoplakia
- Malacoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous condition that can affect any organ
- The urinary tract being the most common system involved. Within the urinary tract, the bladder is the most frequently affected organ (40% of patients with malacoplakia)
- Malacoplakia signifies soft plaque.
- Female-to-male ratio of 4:1.
- Peak occurrence is in middle age.
- The disease is more common in patients with diabetes mellitus or in immunocompromised individuals (i.e acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or recent transplant recipients).
- Presenting symptoms include gross hematuria and signs of urinary tract infection.
- Malacoplakia is highly associated with Escherichia coli infection, but infection alone is not thought to be causative.
- The pathogenesis is thought to involve impaired host defenses and defective phagocytosis.
- The size of the lesions can range from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Plaques can extend into the distal ureters.
- Biopsy is essential for appropriate conservative management.
- Treatment regimens include antibiotics, ascorbic acid, and a cholinergic agonist.
 Imaging Findings for Bladder malacoplakia
- Imaging characteristics of malacoplakia are varied.
- There may be multiple, polypoid, vascular, solid masses or circumferential wall thickening, associated with Vesicoureteral reflux and dilatation of the upper urinary tract.
- Malacoplakia may be extremely aggressive, invading the perivesical space, and it can even cause bone destruction.
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 References for Bladder malacoplakia
- Jade J. Wong-You–Cheong, Paula J. Woodward, Maria A. Manning, and Charles J. Davis. From the Archives of the AFIP: Inflammatory and Nonneoplastic Bladder Masses: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation. RadioGraphics 2006 26: 1847-1868.