Bronchial atresia

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[edit] Discussion of Bronchial atresia

  • Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare anomaly that results from focal obliteration of a proximal segmental or subsegmental bronchus that lacks communication with the central airways.
  • The development of distal structures is normal.
  • Bronchial atresia most often affects segmental bronchi at or near their origin; however, lobar or subsegmental bronchi may also be involved.
  • The bronchi distal to the stenosis become filled with mucus and form a bronchocele.
  • The alveoli supplied by these bronchi are ventilated by collateral pathways and show features of air-trapping, resulting in a region of hyperinflation around the dilated bronchi.
  • The upper-lobe bronchi are more frequently affected; middle and lower lobes are rarely affected.
  • The abnormality is an incidental finding in approximately 50% of cases, mostly in young men, and generally produces no symptoms or signs.

[edit] Imaging Findings for Bronchial atresia

  • In the newborn period, bronchial atresia is seen as a water-density mass.
  • Later in childhood, the fetal lung liquid escapes and bronchial atresia is found because of focal air trapping.
  • In adults, bronchial atresia characteristically is seen as a solitary pulmonary nodule due to a mucus plug and less frequently as congenital lobar emphysema.
  • The characteristic chest radiographic finding consists of a bronchocele, seen as rounded, branching opacities radiating from the hilum. The bronchocele may contain an air-fluid level.
  • The distal lung is emphysematous and produces an area of hyperlucency around the affected bronchi. In newborns, the affected segment may be seen as a fluid-filled mass.
  • CT is a sensitive modality for demonstrating the typical features of bronchial atresia. It shows a round opacity at the site of the atresia, medial to the air trapping, which can be clearly depicted by performing expiratory CT.

[edit] Images

Patient #1

[edit] See Also

[edit] External Links

Goldminer: Bronchial atresia

[edit] References for Bronchial atresia