Caudal regression syndrome
 Discussion of Caudal regression syndrome
- Caudal regression syndrome (CRS), also known as caudal dysplasia sequence, is characterized by a series of congenital abnormalities, including complete or partial agenesis of the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae associated with pelvic deformity.
- Femoral hypoplasia, club feet, and flexion contractures of the lower extremities are also commonly seen.
- Additionally, CRS is often associated with anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and heart, as well as with neural tube defects.
- The majority of cases of CRS are sporadic.
- CRS occurs in up to 1% of pregnancies of women with diabetes, and up to 22% of cases of CRS are associated with either type I or type II diabetes mellitus in the mother.
- CRS is thought to arise from a defect in induction of caudal elements of the embryo before the 7th week of gestation.
- Prenatal diagnosis focuses on discerning the extent of caudal dysgenesis so that appropriate patient counseling can be provided and so that postnatal interventions to treat the congenital abnormalities of CRS, such as imperforate anus and fecal or urinary incontinence, can be planned.
 Imaging Findings for Caudal regression syndrome
- As above
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 References for Caudal regression syndrome
- Annemarie Stroustrup Smith, Ian Grable, and Deborah Levine. Case 66: Caudal Regression Syndrome in the Fetus of a Diabetic Mother. Radiology 2004 230: 229-233.