Cystitis cystica and glandularis
 Discussion of Cystitis cystica and glandularis
- Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis are common chronic reactive inflammatory disorders that occur in the setting of chronic irritation.
- Metaplasia of the urothelium is incited by irritants such as infection, calculi, outlet obstruction, or tumor.
- The urothelium then proliferates into buds, which grow down into the connective tissue beneath the epithelium in the lamina propria.
- The buds then differentiate into cystic deposits of cystitis cystica or into goblet cells resulting in cystitis glandularis.
- The histologic features of both cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis are usually present, rather than either in its pure form.
- Cystitis glandularis can occur in association with pelvic lipomatosis and is believed to result from bladder obstruction and chronic infection.
- Bladder exstrophy is also associated with diffuse cystitis glandularis.
- Biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
- Treatment consists of removing the source of irritation and surgical excision of the area of inflammation or cystectomy in rare severe cases.
- These patients should be monitored carefully because of the possible association with adenocarcinoma.
 Imaging Findings for Cystitis cystica and glandularis
- Masses from cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis vary in number and size and manifest as filling defects at urography.
- A hypervascular polypoid mass has been observed on CT and MR images, with low signal intensity reported with T1-weighted sequences. On T2-weighted images, the lesion was predominantly low in signal intensity with a central branching high-signal-intensity pattern.
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 References for Cystitis cystica and glandularis
- Jade J. Wong-You–Cheong, Paula J. Woodward, Maria A. Manning, and Charles J. Davis. From the Archives of the AFIP: Inflammatory and Nonneoplastic Bladder Masses: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation. RadioGraphics 2006 26: 1847-1868.