Double inferior vena cava
 Discussion of Double inferior vena cava
- Duplication of the IVC results from persistence of both supracardinal veins.
- The prevalence is 0.2%–3%.
- Double IVC should be suspected in cases of recurrent pulmonary embolism following placement of an IVC filter.
- As with left IVC, misdiagnosis of the aberrant vessel as lymphadenopathy should be avoided.
 Imaging Findings for Double inferior vena cava
- The left IVC typically ends at the left renal vein, which crosses anterior to the aorta in the normal fashion to join the right IVC. However, there may be variations in this arrangement.
- There may be significant asymmetry in the sizes of the left and right veins.
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 References for Double inferior vena cava
- J. Edward Bass, Michael D. Redwine, Larry A. Kramer, Phan T. Huynh, and John H. Harris, Jr. Spectrum of Congenital Anomalies of the Inferior Vena Cava: Cross-sectional Imaging Findings. RadioGraphics 2000 20: 639-652.