Discussion of Gynecomastia
- Gynecomastia is the most common benign condition of the male breast.
- Gynecomastia is enlargement of the male breast due to benign ductal and stromal proliferation.
- The hallmark of gynecomastia is its central symmetric location under the nipple.
 Imaging Findings for Gynecomastia
- Three mammographic patterns of gynecomastia have been described representing various degrees and stages of ductal and stromal proliferation. They are the nodular, dendritic, and diffuse glandular patterns.
- Early nodular gynecomastia (florid phase) is seen in patients with gynecomastia for less than 1 year.
- At mammography, there is nodular subareolar density.
- At US, there is a subareolar fan- or disk-shaped hypoechoic nodule surrounded by normal fatty tissue.
- Chronic dendritic gynecomastia (quiescent phase) is seen in patients with gynecomastia for longer than 1 year.
- Fibrosis becomes the dominant process and is irreversible.
- Mammograms typically show dendritic subareolar density with posterior linear projections radiating into the surrounding tissue toward the upper-outer quadrant.
- At sonography, there is a subareolar hypoechoic lesion with an anechoic star-shaped posterior border, which can be described as fingerlike projections or "spider legs" insinuating into the surrounding echogenic fibrous breast tissue.
- Diffuse glandular gynecomastia is commonly seen in patients receiving exogenous estrogen.
- At mammography, there is enlargement of the breast and diffuse density with both dendritic and nodular features.
- At sonography, both nodular and dendritic features are seen surrounded by diffuse hyperechoic fibrous breast tissue.
 See Also
 External Links
 References for Gynecomastia
- Lina Chen, Prem K. Chantra, Linda H. Larsen, Premsri Barton, Montanan Rohitopakarn, Elise Q. Zhu, and Lawrence W. Bassett. Imaging Characteristics of Malignant Lesions of the Male Breast. RadioGraphics 2006 26: 993-1006.