Gynecomastia

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[edit] Discussion of Gynecomastia

  • Gynecomastia is the most common benign condition of the male breast.
  • Gynecomastia is enlargement of the male breast due to benign ductal and stromal proliferation.
  • The hallmark of gynecomastia is its central symmetric location under the nipple.


[edit] Imaging Findings for Gynecomastia

  • Three mammographic patterns of gynecomastia have been described representing various degrees and stages of ductal and stromal proliferation. They are the nodular, dendritic, and diffuse glandular patterns.


  • Early nodular gynecomastia (florid phase) is seen in patients with gynecomastia for less than 1 year.
    • At mammography, there is nodular subareolar density.
    • At US, there is a subareolar fan- or disk-shaped hypoechoic nodule surrounded by normal fatty tissue.


  • Chronic dendritic gynecomastia (quiescent phase) is seen in patients with gynecomastia for longer than 1 year.
    • Fibrosis becomes the dominant process and is irreversible.
    • Mammograms typically show dendritic subareolar density with posterior linear projections radiating into the surrounding tissue toward the upper-outer quadrant.
    • At sonography, there is a subareolar hypoechoic lesion with an anechoic star-shaped posterior border, which can be described as fingerlike projections or "spider legs" insinuating into the surrounding echogenic fibrous breast tissue.


  • Diffuse glandular gynecomastia is commonly seen in patients receiving exogenous estrogen.
    • At mammography, there is enlargement of the breast and diffuse density with both dendritic and nodular features.
    • At sonography, both nodular and dendritic features are seen surrounded by diffuse hyperechoic fibrous breast tissue.

[edit] Images

Patient #1

[edit] See Also

[edit] External Links

Goldminer: Gynecomastia

[edit] References for Gynecomastia