Male breast cancer
 Discussion of Male breast cancer
- Male breast cancer accounts for 0.7% of total breast cancers.
- Mean age of diagnosis is 67 years
- Approximately 85% of primary male breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma of the "not otherwise specified" subtype.
- Risk factors include:
- Advanced age
- Prior irradiation of the chest
- Exogenous estrogen for prostate cancer treatment and gender-reassignment procedures
- Liver disease and other diseases associated with hyperestrogenism
- Androgen deficiency due to testicular dysfunction
- Certain genetic and chromosomal conditions such as BRCA2 mutation and Klinefelter syndrome
- Most common presentation in these patients is a palpable mass.
- Palpable axillary lymph nodes are present in about 50% of cases.
- Staging and treatment are similar to those of female breast cancer.
 Imaging Findings for Male breast cancer
- At mammography, these are typically high-density irregular masses with well-defined contours.
- Margins are usually spiculated, lobulated, or microlobulated.
- Most are retroareolar since male breast cancers commonly arise from central ducts.
- They can be distinguished from benign gynecomastia by appearing as a discrete mass.
- Eccentric location is not typical for benign gynecomastia and is suspicious for carcinoma.
- Microcalcification is less commonly seen in males than in females.
- Nipple retraction, skin thickening, and increased trabeculation are helpful secondary signs and carry a poor prognosis.
- Male breast cancers have similar US features as in women.
- Discrete, hypoechoic masses with margins that are angulated, microlobulated, or spiculated.
 See Also
 External Links
 References for Male breast cancer
- Lina Chen, Prem K. Chantra, Linda H. Larsen, Premsri Barton, Montanan Rohitopakarn, Elise Q. Zhu, and Lawrence W. Bassett. Imaging Characteristics of Malignant Lesions of the Male Breast. RadioGraphics 2006 26: 993-1006.