- Other infections (syphilitic, protozoal, parasitic)
- Hypersensitivity or autoimmunity related
- Rheumatic fever
- Collagen vascular disease
 Imaging Findings
- CT attenuation measurements also enable the initial characterization of pericardial fluid.
- A fluid collection with attenuation close to that of water is likely to be a simple effusion.
- Attenuation greater than that of water suggests malignancy, hemopericardium, purulent exudate, or effusion associated with hypothyroidism.
- Pericardial effusions with low attenuation also have been reported in cases of chylopericardium.
- The appearance of pericardial fluid is different on SE and GRE cine MR images.
- Nonhemorrhagic fluid has low signal intensity on T1-weighted SE images and high intensity on GRE cine images. Conversely, hemorrhagic effusion is characterized by high signal intensity on T1-weighted SE images and low intensity on GRE cine images.
- When an effusion is secondary to malignancy, an irregularly thickened pericardium or pericardial nodularity may be depicted on MR images.
 See Also
 External Links
- E-medicine: medicine, ob/gyn, psychiatry, and surgery article
- Zhen J. Wang, Gautham P. Reddy, Michael B. Gotway, Benjamin M. Yeh, Steven W. Hetts, and Charles B. Higgins. CT and MR Imaging of Pericardial Disease. RadioGraphics 2003 23: 167S-180S.