Discussion of Pseudoaneurysm
- Pseudoaneurysms arise from a disruption in arterial wall with blood dissecting into the tissues around the damaged artery creating a perfused sac that communicates with the arterial lumen
- Etiologies of pseudoaneurysms include: inflammation, trauma, and various iatrogenic causes (eg, surgery, percutaneous biopsy, drainage).
- Pseudoaneurysms may present as a palpable thrill, audible bruit, or pulsatile mass.
- Local effects of a pseudoaneurysm are secondary to mass effect on adjacent structures causing compromise of function.
- Ischemia of the surrounding tissues due to vascular compromise may lead to necrosis of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue.
- Neurologic symptoms may develop secondary to nerve compression or ischemia.
- Compression of adjacent veins may lead to edema and deep vein thrombosis.
- Thromboembolism and rupture are potential complications.
 Imaging Findings for Pseudoaneurysm
- Yin-yang sign: Swirling blood flow pattern within a cystic structure.
- To-and-fro flow: to represents blood entering the pseudoaneurysm in systole and fro represents blood exiting the pseudoaneurysm during diastole.
Patient #1: Gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm
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 References for Pseudoaneurysm
- Nael E. A. Saad, Wael E. A. Saad, Mark G. Davies, David L. Waldman, Patrick J. Fultz, and Deborah J. Rubens. [Pseudoaneurysms and the Role of Minimally Invasive Techniques in Their Management.] RadioGraphics 2005 25: S173-189S.