(Redirected from Tracheoesophageal fistula)
 Discussion of Esophageal atresia
- Esophageal atresia, with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, is the most common congenital malformation of the esophagus.
- In 25% of cases, the anomaly is associated with other gastrointestinal malformations such as imperforate anus, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, duodenal atresia, annular pancreas, and, less frequently, with cardiac, genitourinary, and vertebral changes.
- In approximately 70% of cases, the "VACTERL" complex is associated with tracheoesophageal anomalies.
- Different types of atresia are recognized depending on the presence or absence of tracheoesophageal fistula and its location. These were classified by R. E. Gross (1953) as follows:
- Type A: Corresponds to pure esophageal atresia without fistula
- Type B: Esophageal atresia with fistula between the proximal pouch and the trachea
- Type C: Esophageal atresia and fistula from the trachea or the main bronchus to the distal esophageal segment. This is the most common.
- Type D: Esophageal atresia with both proximal and distal fistulas
- Type E: Tracheoesophageal fistula without atresia.
- Esophageal atresia was not included in the classification by Gross.
- Esophageal atresia is suspected on the basis of polyhydramnios, inability to swallow saliva or milk, aspiration during early feedings, or failure to successfully pass a catheter into the stomach.
 Imaging Findings for Esophageal atresia
- Radiologic diagnosis of esophageal atresia is made by detecting a blind pouch of the proximal esophagus that is distended with air.
- Radiographic evaluation should always include the abdomen to look for the presence of air in the gastrointestinal tract (distal fistula).
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 References for Esophageal atresia
- Teresa Berrocal, Carmen Madrid, Susana Novo, Julia Gutiérrez, Antonia Arjonilla, and Nieves Gómez-León. Congenital Anomalies of the Tracheobronchial Tree, Lung, and Mediastinum: Embryology, Radiology, and Pathology. RadioGraphics 2004 24: e17.