- AKA neutropenic enterocolitis
- Occurs in neutropenic patients undergoing treatment for a malignancy, most frequently patients with acute leukemia who are receiving chemotherapy.
- Also been reported in patients with aplastic anemia, lymphoma, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and after kidney transplantation.
- Typhlitis is characterized by edema and inflammation of the cecum, the ascending colon, and sometimes the terminal ileum.
- The inflammation can be so severe that transmural necrosis, perforation, and death can result.
- The mechanism of the condition is not known, but it is probably due to a combination of ischemia, infection (especially with cytomegalovirus), mucosal hemorrhage, and perhaps neoplastic infiltration.
- Treatment consists of bowel rest, total parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, and aggressive fluid and electrolyte replacement.
 Imaging Findings
- Cecal distention and circumferential thickening of the cecal wall
- Inflammatory stranding of the adjacent mesenteric fat is a common finding.
- Detection of complications such as pneumatosis, pneumoperitoneum, and pericolic fluid collections is important because they indicate a need for urgent surgical management.
 See Also
 External Links
- Karen M. Horton, Frank M. Corl, and Elliot K. Fishman. CT Evaluation of the Colon: Inflammatory Disease. RadioGraphics 2000 20: 399-418.